Pharmaceuticals giant GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) has consolidated all its newsletters into one targeted and tailored email, sent to staff worldwide twice a month. Joe Lees, channel manager in the communications and government affairs department, tells us about this highly ambitious project.
Joe, how did you end up in corporate communications?
After doing a degree in media production and technology, I got a job as staff writer on technology magazine PC Plus. From there I went to B2B distributor Computers Unlimited, working first as a copywriter for catalogues and later as a production manager. That was initially all about print, but I later became immersed in digital design as I coordinated a weekly email update.
After that I moved to an agency, where I ran a team of designers and developers and managed internal communications projects for clients including GlaxoSmithKline. After seven years, GSK invited me to move in-house and in 2016 I became a channel manager in the communications and government affairs department at GSK. My role is to be a business partner to the internal comms team, making sure people in the department get the most out of the communications channels we have.
How was it moving from agency to client side?
In a way it wasn’t a huge challenge because I already knew GSK well, but it immediately became clear to me that even as an agency embedded in the company, there are things you can’t fully grasp. For example, I hadn’t completely understood how core GSK’s values are to everything the company does. Understanding that was like someone turning on a light in a dark room.
I found the move in-house rewarding because I could now implement and influence outcomes more. I have more of a voice to say we should go in a certain direction; more of a hand on the steering wheel. But I do think an agency background is valuable: it helps you bring an external view and question stuff more. I’m constantly asking if things meet the objectives they need to meet.
It’s a huge amount of work: we have a team of around seven people working pretty much constantly on this
Tell us about GSK’s all-company newsletters.
Every two weeks, we send out an e-mailed newsletter using Poppulo software to all GSK employees. We have around 200 contributors to the newsletter – a broad range of people who are either full-time communicators or are based on one of our sites with comms as part of their responsibilities.
Every issue of the newsletter contains an average of around 200 articles, but we carefully segment by countries, departments and disciplines so that each reader sees no more than seven to 10 articles in their tailored newsletter. Each item is around 100 words and includes a call to action and link to a fuller story on an intranet page.
It’s a huge amount of work: we have a team of around seven people working pretty much constantly on this, including a dedicated editor-in-chief. We’re never not producing an issue: as soon as we finish one, we start on the next.
Why did GSK move to a unified newsletter?
Around 2015, our then-CEO Andrew Witty had a meeting with country managers at which they said there was too much email, too much noise that it was hard to cut through. The Consumer Healthcare division led the charge on this in 2016, gaining the backing of our head of employee engagement for a plan to reduce noise and increase engagement. They trialled Newsweaver (now Poppulo) for a newsletter and gradually moved to roll out a global unified newsletter for their division.
We then went a level further to implement this company-wide. Instead of a plethora of newsletters – I think there were around 40 at that time, some of them as big as 50 stories per issue – we wanted to put the most important news front and centre in a mailing that had a consistent look and feel and tone of voice.
This meant axing dozens of smaller internal newsletters. Was it hard to persuade people to give them up?
It was definitely interesting to get people to change their existing process and adopt ours, decommissioning their own newsletter in the process and losing their own look and feel. Having the head of employee engagement spearhead this did help us overcome any resistance. That said, most contributors were willing to give this a try.
With 200 contributors based in different timezones and speaking different languages, simply coordinating them is the biggest challenge we have
How does the process work?
Before anyone becomes a contributor and gets access to our Poppulo account, we give them a special onboarding session to train them on our editorial process, editorial guidelines, tone of voice, and so on. We do these sessions every fortnight.
Every two weeks we have Editorial Board meetings, held the day after we send out the newsletter. At these meetings, we review how the last issue went, and plan the global and business news content for the next issue. This accounts for around half of the articles: the other half is local news contributed by the local units either in English or their own language.
What have the major challenges been?
With 200 contributors based in different timezones and speaking different languages, simply coordinating them is the biggest challenge we have. The dedicated editor role is key to making it happen.
Having a mixed-language newsletter is sub-optimal but we simply don’t have bandwith to translate 200 stories into the nine or 10 languages we need. Machine translation out of English is not good, so we’ve found a compromise. The newsletter shows readers news in their own language first, to prevent non-English speakers disregarding the whole publication.
There’s actually been an unforeseen benefit of allowing people to contribute in their own language. It’s helped us establish a strong global network of communicators who have a stake in what we are doing – connnections and relationships that will help our work in the long term.
How about measurement. How do you measure success?
I can’t emphasise enough how important measurement is. The fact the Poppulo system enables us to do very detailed measurement in customised reports was a major incentive for people to get involved in what we’re doing.
We’ve taken the metrics and fed them into an IC framework that can compare numbers for intranet engagement. This gives us a much more broad-based and granular view of engagement. We tag stories to strategic objectives so we know which kind of articles our audience likes and which they find less interesting. These valuable insights help us maximise our communication efforts.
93% of employees surveyed say the newsletter helps them understand our strategic objectives
And how has your success measured up?
I’m delighted that 93% of employees surveyed say the newsletter helps them understand our strategic objectives. When we did a special newsletter on our corporate results, 98% of respondents said they liked having their email news consolidated into one. So the overwhelming feedback has been positive.
Any advice for other companies wishing to make a similar move?
Think carefully before you take the plunge: it’s a vast amount of work. First look at your situation and ask whether this would really move the needle. Do you have so much noise that consolidation would make sense? If so, look at the size of your envisaged newsletter and ask if your organisation is big enough to merit it.
If you do decide to go down this route, solid planning is crucial. Before we launched in November 2016, we spent months planning and prototyping, and did three rehearsals over a six-week period, carefully putting together full-scale newsletters as rehearsals.
What has this project meant to you personally?
When I worked on print magazines, it was great when a 200-page issue came back from the printers: that new print smell and satisfaction of creation. This has been similarly rewarding for me. Late nights with coffee, pizza and music playing – a close-knit team, just like the agency days, overcoming challenges and getting it done, is hugely satisfying.
Belgian-born Lynn Robbroeckx works for Luxembourg for Finance (LFF), where she manages communications for the Luxembourg financial centre. In the latest instalment of our Expert Talk series, she tells us that the Grand Duchy’s international role and cross-border expertise are too often overlooked, creating LFF’s biggest PR challenge: ‘Making the unknown known’.
How did you roll into PR and corporate communications?
After taking a master’s degree in sinology from the Catholic University of Louvain in Belgium and studying Chinese at Chengkung University in Taiwan, I started my career in China, where I worked at the embassies of Belgium and Luxembourg.
I then joined Arcelor China in 2005, which turned out to be an action-packed year. Globally, steel prices were skyrocketing, and the high level of M&A and consolidation within the industry led to the merger of the world’s two largest steelmakers, Arcelor and Mittal.
During the takeover process, the international strategic communication battle between the two companies made a deep impression on me. It encouraged me to direct my focus to the communications activities of the new international steel company in China, to build the brand and tell the story of the newly-created ArcelorMittal.
You joined ArcelorMittal’s media relations team in London in 2008.
Right after the euphoria of the Beijing Olympics in 2008, Lehman Brothers collapsed, and the world slid into recession. It was indeed then that I joined the media relations team in London and got involved in a wide series of international communication projects.
I created and executed communication and branding programs for mining and steel projects in countries such as China and Liberia and coordinated communications in Europe. Quite a diverse role. ArcelorMittal constructed a new railway in Liberia, for instance, where there had been no trains for 20 years, and that meant our communications had to sensitize people and warn them of the possible dangers.
In 2013, I moved to financial services and joined Luxembourg for Finance (LFF), the agency for the development of Luxembourg’s financial centre, to manage its communications. I wanted to work closer to my family living in the south of Belgium, but still in an international environment. Just as steel had done, I felt finance would give me good insight into the functioning of an economy and the need for effective communications.
Communications in steel or finance do not differ much, although steel is more tangible and so it’s a bit easier to make your stories concrete and clear. In finance, you quickly run the risk of becoming too dry or abstract.
“We bring the stories of Luxembourg’s financial professionals to the world on a daily basis”
Tell us about Luxembourg for Finance and your work there.
LFF was created in November 2007 as a public-private partnership between the Luxembourg government and the financial industry in Luxembourg, represented by the main industry trade bodies, notably ALFI (investment funds), ABBL (banking), ACA (insurance), etc.
The agency aims to act as the voice of the Luxembourg financial centre abroad. It also stimulates development of the financial centre, chiefly by helping open up new markets for Luxembourg-based institutions and by bringing new players and activities to Luxembourg.
LFF reflects Luxembourg’s financial centre through its international nature: our team is composed of 17 people from six different countries, speaking 10 languages, which is a distinct advantage. Three of us work in communications. We bring the stories of Luxembourg’s financial professionals to the world on a daily basis.
With over 110 editions of our quarterly magazine LEO and brochures on themes such as corporate finance, capital markets and wealth management, plus more than 150 videos, a monthly newsletter, a website and social media channels, we produce a huge amount of exclusive content for our readers abroad. There is so much to tell about Luxembourg, as the financial world is so quick to renew.
Do you contact media reactively or proactively?
Our agency is the first port of call for journalists who need information about the Luxembourg financial centre. We always try to respond quickly and to assist in the best possible way. Every time a journalist calls, that is a new opportunity to build a relationship. Not responding or engaging with media is out of the question.
So when engaging with journalists, you can’t expect to be purely reactive or proactive. To build solid media relations for the long term, you need to be available and have a dialogue, especially at moments when important issues need to be addressed in the media.
The national media of smaller countries such as Luxembourg don’t have the size and reach of influential newspapers and newswires in countries such as the US, UK, France or Germany. This is an important reason to step out of our national comfort zone and reach out to media abroad, via partner agencies in the UK, France, Germany and China.
Social media is important as well. Our Chinese partner, for instance, is currently developing our WeChat profile. Luxembourg is a leading player in the renminbi business, as the seven largest Chinese banks have their European hub here. We want to keep that role, so it’s important for Chinese companies to be able to ask questions directly about Luxembourg’s financial services industry.
What do you consider your biggest PR success?
When I began working at LFF, Luxembourg faced some undeniable headwinds and legacy issues, mostly related to tax transparency. Over the years, we have managed to demonstrate that Luxembourg is a reliable partner at European and international levels. It’s an open and dynamic country that has played an active role in international efforts towards more transparency.
Thanks to the availability, efficiency and openness of the Luxembourg government, the professionals of the financial industry and the CEO of LFF, we’ve been able to engage with many international opinion leaders.
We have managed to showcase Luxembourg’s unique ecosystem and financial services expertise in a variety of sectors including banking, investment funds, wealth management, insurance and capital markets.
What do you consider your biggest PR challenge?
The Grand Duchy’s financial centre has experienced impressive development since the 1960s and is one of the top three financial centres in the EU, alongside London and Frankfurt. But its international role and cross-border expertise have often been overlooked by international media.
So making the unknown known is our biggest PR challenge. However, it’s also our biggest communication opportunity – to redress the lack of understanding about international finance, or even the preconceived ideas about Luxembourg.
Many journalists coming to Luxembourg are surprised at the diversity of activities in the financial sector. Luxembourg is the world’s second largest fund management centre with EUR 4,000 billion in assets under management. Leading global asset managers, banks, insurers, but also Fintech companies, have chosen to establish their EU hubs or international competence centres in Luxembourg.
“Big budgets, bright speakers or cool visuals don’t necessarily guarantee the success of a campaign”
What’s the most important PR lesson you’ve learned?
Common sense is not always common in communications, unfortunately. Not everyone always has the courage to say what makes sense and what doesn’t. Big budgets, bright speakers or cool visuals don’t necessarily guarantee the success of a campaign. Communication must be well anchored in the reality of your business. You need to be fully committed to making healthy decisions and fully supporting these. Take your time to really think through your message and discuss it.
During my 15 years in communications, not one single communication project has been the same as another. Every strategy, whether it was deployed in China, Luxembourg, Belgium, the UK, Germany, France, Liberia, Bosnia or Ukraine, was unique. Some countries have access to the latest digital technologies, while in others a radio network needs to be built to spread the message. Newsrooms are shrinking, and there are more and more signs of information overload. People aren’t only becoming blind to advertising; they’re growing content-blind.
Whichever technologies we use, we’ll still be confronted with the fundamentals of our profession: starting each time from scratch, facing the blank page and writing the first words. Confucius said: “If I am walking with two other men, each of them will serve as my teacher.” Whether you’re writing a narrative, developing a new campaign or managing a crisis, make sure you walk with wise men or women.
In the second of our ‘Expert Talk’ series, we meet Frans Middendorff, head of content at ING Group. He talks about his former days as a reporter in Amsterdam and Hong Kong, and explains how ING’s corporate communications department is helping to make ING a brand people love.
ING Group’s 54,000 employees provide retail and wholesale banking services to customers in over 40 countries. Its head office is in Amsterdam, where we catch up with Frans Middendorff.
Frans, how did you end up in corporate communications?
My first job was as an account manager at Achmea, one of the largest Dutch insurers. I was responsible for the investment policy of institutional investors such as pension funds. One of my tasks was to explain to the directors of those pension funds what was happening in the financial markets, and how they could best respond to this.
I noticed that I really liked telling these stories, and I thought I could do that for a larger audience. I had several friends in journalism and I listened regularly to Dutch business radio station BNR. I also thought it would be more exciting to work in journalism, as the dynamics of a daily news broadcast really appealed to me. In 2000 I was able to start as a reporter at that same BNR, and in 2002 I moved to business TV channel RTLZ.
Later, you even worked as a correspondent in Hong Kong?
After three years at RTLZ, my partner was offered a job in Hong Kong. Working as a correspondent over there interested me, as China was becoming an increasingly important source of news stories, including for Dutch media. RTL already had a permanent correspondent in Beijing, but she was happy for some extra help. And I could write stories for Dutch print media from there, too.
As a freelance correspondent I had to find, create and sell stories. I had to build my own team with a cameraman and a fixer – someone who could show me the way and translate, for example when I did street interviews. It was fun and very educational to work in a completely new environment. On behalf of a large media company I was able to interview people that I would otherwise never have spoken to. I got to know the culture and the country in a very incisive way. That was very special.
Why did you return to the corporate world in 2009, as a press officer at ING?
It’s difficult to make a career in journalism. By that I don’t mean it’s hard to earn money, but to develop yourself and broaden your opportunities. All you could do after finishing a story was to start a new one. I wanted to work with a longer horizon than just my next story. I saw more possibilities in the corporate world, where you can work more strategically.
Looking back, my innate curiosity has been an important motivator throughout my various roles. It has always led me to new opportunities. My love of language was also important, although I did not study languages but law and later on did a full-time MBA in Seattle, just before I started at ING.
Was it a big change to move from journalism to corporate communications?
For a journalist, working as a press officer, which was the first job I landed when I started at ING, feels like a natural transition to the communication profession. You continue to use your old network a lot: I kept in touch with the same buddies from journalism. Being on the ‘dark side’, as journalists call it, was never a problem. I never felt less trusted by journalists after having joined the company. One of the most important starting points for ING within corporate communications is transparency: we always have a very open and positive relationship with journalists. I could never have been successful as a press officer in a company that doesn’t have the same open attitude towards the media.
Being a press officer was a great way to get to know ING. As a spokesman in such a large organisation you have access to all parts of the bank to get answers to journalists’ questions. Sometimes you also need to adopt a journalistic way of working to find the answers.
Since 2015 you’ve been head of content at ING. How does that differ from your previous job as press officer?
The content team is one of five teams within corporate communications. It produces most of the content sent out by ING Group, the listed parent company of all banks and business units of ING worldwide.
The content team was established three years ago when we put internal and external communications together. All content creators came together in one group, which was a good move to increase efficiency. Writers now focus on their topics across all channels. It can be the annual report, for instance, speeches of board members, or the stories on our global intranet aiming at our 54,000 colleagues worldwide. But we are also responsible for all content on our corporate website www.ing.com.
The content team consists of 12 colleagues from various countries such as the Netherlands, the US, Australia, South Africa and Romania. They all excel at expressing our stories vividly in words and images, always staying true to our clear and easy ING tone of voice. One of the team members is our translation manager, who oversees translations of the most important content aimed at ING employees in nine different languages.
The content team is one of ING’s five communications teams. What are the other four?
The media relations team consists of spokespeople or press officers who communicate with one special and very important target group, the media. The strategic advice team advises the various board members on their communication, from large communication plans around change projects to speaking engagements at conferences.
Our channels team makes sure we have state-of-the-art media channels, not only in a technical sense but also in terms of design and features. Finally, we have a specific team that is responsible for ING’s branding. In total, more than 70 people work at ING’s corporate communications department in Amsterdam.
How do these five teams work together?
We have identified a number of themes that we want to communicate about, such as innovation or customer experience. People from across the five disciplines are designated to work on those themes and they meet regularly to develop and execute communication strategies. We are looking into how we can further improve collaboration by adopting Agile as a working method.
The content team meets weekly to keep each other updated on the stories they’re writing, discussing angles to take or headlines. Besides that, some stories come in from other departments within ING. In our content group, we distribute the inbox of story ideas, and we edit and proofread each other’s stories. Together we safeguard ING’s tone of voice: clear, easy, to the point and no-nonsense.
What would you consider to be your biggest success at ING?
On behalf of ING, I’m proud of how we profile our CEO Ralph Hamers internally and externally, and more specifically when we announce our quarterly results. Our quarterly results video is the epitome of our strategy to be as no-nonsense and clear as possible.
In these videos, Ralph discusses the highlights of the past quarter in 90 seconds. He looks directly into the camera – it’s not an old-fashioned corporate video – and talks very openly with some amusing remarks here and there. He doesn’t focus on our profit, but on what we’ve done that quarter for our customers. All corporate communications disciplines come together for these quarterly videos: together we create the idea and work it out.
And what is your biggest challenge as head of content at ING?
Our bank, like others, saw a lot of trust lost during the financial crisis. In recent years we’ve worked step by step on restoring that trust. Crucial was the new strategy launched by ING when appointing Ralph Hamers as CEO: ING is there to help customers move forward, whether they are companies or private individuals. It’s our job to make that purpose come to life with all kinds of stories and examples on our corporate website and through many other channels. Slowly but surely you see ING’s image changing for the better.
Ralph is nowadays sometimes even called ‘the Steve Jobs of banking’ and gets asked to speak in many countries about his vision on the future of banking. While of course there’s a big difference between Apple and ING, it’s a sign we’ve managed to regain trust and are on our way to becoming a brand people love. All of us at the corporate communications department are proud to be part of that journey.
For the first interview in our new Stampa series, we sat down with Viviane Huybrecht, General Manager Corporate Communications at KBC Group. She talked about her PR highs and lows, and explained how KBC Group is fighting fake news with its blockchain authentication tool for press releases, PowerPoint presentations and other documents published on www.kbc.com.
KBC Group is the largest bank-insurance group in Belgium. Its more than 43,000 employees serve around 12 million clients, predominantly in its core markets of Belgium, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria and Ireland, where KBC is a major financial player.
How did you end up in PR?
At the beginning of my career I did all sorts of things, but the common thread was always communication with people – HR, training and commercial functions. I started 22 years ago as head of the press office at Kredietbank, which later merged into KBC. I took to it like a duck to water. Communication is not a job for me, it is a passion. There’s never a dull moment!
KBC’s corporate communications department consists of eight people, four of them in charge of press relations for all entities in Belgium and for group-wide coordination. I also coordinate crisis communications group-wide.
In addition to my job at KBC, I am a guest lecturer in crisis communications at the University of Leuven.
What is distinctive about KBC’s communications?
First, we are listed on the stock exchange. This means we must respect the European transparency directive, which states that we must inform all stakeholders about price/stock-sensitive information in the same way and at the same time.
In addition, we are not in a habit of making big announcements long before things actually take place. When we communicate about something, it has already been done or will be done pretty soon. For instance, we could have announced that we were developing a blockchain tool to authenticate press releases when we started working on it in March last year, but we waited for the real launch in June, so people could try the blockchain tool right away. With our communication, journalists and investors know what’s the deal with us; we do not make false promises.
A final but very important principle we adhere to is transparency, communicating as openly and clearly as possible. Being proactive is part of that. We always have several press releases on stand-by for possible crisis situations. If you are active in so many different markets, and you follow these markets with a limited number of people, preparing well is the only way to go.
What’s the most important PR lesson you’ve learned during your career?
My grandmother always said that if everyone jumps into the water, you don’t have to follow immediately. It’s something I’ve regularly repeated here at the office. Competitor X might do A today and B tomorrow, but that doesn’t mean we should drop everything to follow. The communications world is full of great ideas, but you also need to stick to your own ambition, vision, strategy and plan. Keep in mind the context and environment, but stay with your own line as much as possible. Because if your policy changes continuously, where do you eventually end up?
What is your biggest PR success?
I’d say our recent investor event in Dublin, which generated excellent coverage. KBC featured on the most important TV channels in Belgium and in almost all newspapers and magazines.
Sixteen journalists travelled from Belgium to Dublin for an intense two-day programme, gaining access to top KBC management for two days. In Dublin we set up a large space to demonstrate the innovative applications we’d launched for each core country, such as a drone to inspect damage to crops in Bulgaria.
What are your biggest PR challenges?
There are times when we realise in advance that certain communications are too close to marketing, so we already know the press release won’t be picked up much. But you always have to consider your internal stakeholders and their challenges as well. I think many communications people recognise that.
Sometimes we could or should react more quickly. But much also depends on how fast we get the information internally. And we are a listed company: the information you put into the market must be accurate.
At times, PR can be an unequal battle. That was especially noticeable during the financial crisis of 2008-2009. As a listed company, you must inform all stakeholders at the same time and in the same way. In a major crisis, I can’t just respond to one journalist with market-sensitive information; that would be ‘selective disclosure’. I must send out a press release to everyone. An opinion-maker or analyst doesn’t have to take this into account.
I specifically recall a Friday afternoon in January 2009. At that time, KBC had a portfolio of CDOs (collateralised debt obligations), and Bloomberg suddenly reported that Moody’s would soon change its ratings methodology. How they would do that was not yet known.
Journalists started calling us to ask how this would affect KBC. That was difficult because we were still seeking the information ourselves. The Moody’s decision created a great deal of uncertainty in the market, sending down KBC’s share price substantially.
Last summer, KBC launched a blockchain authentication tool for press releases and other documents published on its corporate website www.kbc.com. Can you tell us about that?
Journalists, investors or customers can upload a press release or PowerPoint presentation in PDF format to www.kbc.com/en/authenticity. If the document does not originate from KBC, or if it’s not the most recent version, they will be notified that the document is not authentic. The blockchain tool is only meant for PDF files published on our website that clearly state that ‘KBC offers you the opportunity to check authenticity at www.kbc.com/en/authenticity’.
How did you come up with the idea for this authentication tool?
In November 2016, French building company Vinci had to deal with a fake press release that claimed there had been a massive fraud and that the CFO had resigned leaving a multi-billion-euro deficit.
Vinci shares dived immediately, as a newswire had reported on the fake release. When Vinci realised the source was a false press release, they sent out a correct one to counter it. But the share price had already fallen, wiping billions of euros from the company’s market value.
When I saw that happening at Vinci, I was shocked. As a spokesperson you obviously encounter rumours: that’s something we’ve been living with for years. Acquisitions or divestments, there are always rumours flying around. But for me it was the first time deliberate misinformation had been distributed to damage a company.
By then, our IT department at KBC had been active with blockchain technology for some time. When we heard about their work, and they explained how you can use blockchain to authenticate documents, it seemed logical to try the technology for press releases and other documents as well. That’s how the ball began to roll. We started developing the tool in March 2017 and launched it last June.
The existence of such a blockchain tool does not release the journalist from his or her responsibility, does it?
During the financial crisis of 2008-2009, I often got calls from international news agencies asking if the press release they’d just received was accurate and sent by KBC. They were fact-checking because that kind of information was so sensitive in a global financial crisis affecting many banks. As a reporter, you can’t afford to publish with abandon.
In recent years journalists have called us much less, also because they have known us for 20 years and can better assess what is authentic and credible and what is not. Journalists still call to check things, however, and I’m happy about that.
Nowadays anyone can spread false or fake news via social media. In that sense, our blockchain authentication tool can’t prevent all fake news.
A practical question: what if you want to change a published press release and put a new version online?
Then we just put the latest version on the website. If a journalist checks an outdated PDF of the press release, they are notified that the press release is not authentic, even if we have only changed a full stop or a comma. The next version of the tool will be more precise: it will not only report that an outdated press release is not official, but also that there is a newer version.
Is the authentication tool now being more broadly applied within KBC?
Other KBC departments are also looking into authentication of documents through blockchain technology. For example, it could be used to check an insurance policy that you’ve received by e-mail, to see if the policy is authentic and genuinely comes from KBC. Or to check if you have the latest tariffs on banking services and products.
Other future communications possibilities could be the authentication of videos and images, such as the video statement of the CEO commenting on annual results. But we have not yet looked into that further.
Blockchain technology offers a number of clear advantages and is being explored throughout KBC Group. We are satisfied with the first pilot project and want to continue. KBC wants to remain a forerunner in blockchain by continuing to invest in it.